Published On: Fri, May 20th, 2022

SCALES FOR ANALOGUE ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

SKALE KOD ANALOGNIH ELEKTRIČNIH MERNIH INSTRUMENATA

SCALES FOR ANALOGUE ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

Author: Radoje Jankovic

Znamo da najveći broj vas nije imao prilike da vidi mnoge analogne instrumente za merenje raznih električnih veličina, pa smo se zato i odlučili da ovu kratku  lekciju posvetimo toj temi a kasnije ćemo je malo detaljnije obraditi.

Skala električnog mernog instrumenta ima na sebi podeoke koji mmogu biti različito raspoređeni zbog čega imamo više vrsta skala. Osim po podeli razlikujemo skale po velični i po obliku.

Veličina skale zavisi od od veličine instrumetna. Konstruktori teže da skala ima veći zahvatni ugao, odnosno da je duže za istu površinu kvadratnog, pravougaonog ili okruglog instrumenta. Skala instrumenta obično zahvata ugao od 60⁰ , 90⁰, 120⁰, 270⁰  pa čak i 360⁰ kod nekih tipova cosinusfimetara i kod sinhronoskopa.     

Analogni instrumenti mogu imati razne oblike skala;

  • Ravnomerna skala, sa jednakim razmacima podeoka za očitavanje merene električne veličine
  • Kvadratna skala,
  • Sinusna skala,
  • Tangentna skala,
  • Mešovita skala,
  • Proširena skala,
  • Zbijena skala,
  • Skala sa nulom na sredini,
  • Višestruka sa skalama istog mernog sistema,
  • Višestruka skala skalama različitog sistema,
  • Valjkasta skala sa skalama različitog sistema itd.

We know that most of you have not had the opportunity to see many analog instruments for measuring various electrical quantities, so we decided to dedicate this short lesson to this topic, and we will discuss it in a little more detail later.

The scale of an electric measuring instrument has divisions that can be distributed differently, which is why we have several types of scales. Except by division, we distinguish scales by size and shape.

The size of the scale depends on the size of the instrument. Constructors strive for the scale to have a larger grip angle, ie to be longer for the same area of ​​a square, rectangular or round instrument. The scale of the instrument usually covers an angle of 60⁰, 90⁰, 120⁰, 270⁰ and even 360⁰ with some types of cosine filters and synchronoscopes.

Analog instruments can have various scale shapes;

• Uniform scale, with equal intervals of divisions for reading the measured electrical quantity

• Square scale,

• Sinusoidal scale,

• Tangent scale,

• Mixed scale,

• Extended scale,

• Compact scale,

• Scale with zero in the middle,

• Multiple with scales of the same measuring system,

• Multiple scales with scales of different systems,

• Roller scale with scales of different system, etc.

Ravnomerna ili linearna kvadratna skala jednog kilovatmetra

Uniform or linear square scale of one kilowatt meter

Quadrant scales of analog cosine phimter – power factor meter

Skale kvadrantnog oblika analognih kosinusfimetara razlicitih dimenzija

Quadrant scales of analog cosine phimters of different dimensions

Lučna nelinearna skala analognog kosinusfimetra, ugao 270°

Arc nonlinear scale of analog cosine phimeter, angle 270 °

Tri tipa skala merača faktora snage
Levo displejna skala digitalnog kosinusfimetra
U sredini kružna skala  analognog kosinusfimetra sa mehnizmom s kretnim gvozdjem
Desno kvadrantna skala analognog kosinusfimetra sa kretnim mehanizmom za jednosmernu struju i ugradjenim ispravljačem

Three types of power factor meter scale

Digital cosine factor meter display scale on the left

In the middle is a circular scale of an analog cosine factor meter  with a moving iron mechanism

Right quadrant scale of analog cosine factor meter with DC driving mechanism and built-in rectifier

Laboratorijski levo iI ugradni frekvencimetri – u sredini sa kvadrantnom skalom i treći sa kružnom skalom 270 stepeni.

Laboratory left or built-in frequency meters – in the middle with a quadrant scale and the third with a circular scale of 270 degrees

Rotirajuća skala jednog analognog klamp-on instrumenta za merenje napona, otpora i struje.

Rotating scale of an analog clamp-on instrument for measuring voltage,current and resistance.

Izgled rotirajuće skale jednog klamp-on univerzalnog instrumenta za merenje struje i napona.

Appearance of the rotating scale of a clamp-on universal instrument for measuring current, resistance and voltage.

Još jedan izgled rotirajuće skale u kombinaciji sa pločastom skalom.

Another look of a rotating scale combined with a flat scale.

Izgled skale analognog klamp-on ampermetra i voltmetra

Scale layout of analog clamp-on ammeter and voltmeter

Linearna skala jednog elektrodinamičkog vatmetra
Linear scale of an electrodynamic wattmeter

Izgled skale i kretnog sistema jednog elektrodinamičkog watmetra

Appearance of the scale and motion system of an electrodynamic wattmeter

Izgled skale jednog voltmetra sa ispravljačem za merenje naizmeničng napona do 250 V

Appearance of one voltmeter scale with rectifier for measuring AC voltage up to 250 V

Izgled linearne skale jednog kilovoltmetra

Appearance of the linear scale of one kilovoltmeter

Izgled višestruke linearne skale jednog voltmetra za četiri naponska opsega.

Appearance of multiple linear scales of one voltmeter for four voltage ranges.

Izgled skale i kretnog sistema jednog luksmetra

Appearance of the scale and movement system of one luxmeter

Izgled skale i univerzalnog analognog instrumenta za merenje naizmeničnih i jednosmernih napona, struje i za mrenje električnog otpora

Appearance of scale and universal analog instrument for measuring alternating and direct voltages, current and for measuring electrical resistance

Izgled nelinearne skale jedno megaoometra za merenje otpora izolacije  i unutrašnjosti instrumenta sa kretnim sistemom i induktorom.

Appearance of a nonlinear scale of one megohmmeter for measuring the insulation resistance and the interior of an instrument with a moving system and an inductor.

Izgled skale jednog Vitstonovom mosta sa kertnim sistemom.

The appearance of the scale of a Wheatstone bridge with a moving measuring system.

Izgled same skale prethodnog Vitstonovog mosta za merenje otpora

Appearance of the scale of the previous Wheatstone bridge for measuring resistance

Kvadrantna skala jednog analognog ampermetra za merenje naizmenicne struje sa skupljenim delom na početku i na kraju skale

Quadrant scale of one analog ammeter for measuring alternating current with shrunken part at the beginning and end of the scale

Tri tipa skala električnih mernih instrumenata,
1.     skala sa ekranskim displejom
2.     Kombinovana analogno/displej skala univerzalnog instrumenta
3.     Skala frekvencimetra sa kretnim mehanizmom i ogledalom ispod kazaljke instrumenta za preciznije ocitavanje frekvencije

Three types of scales of electrical measuring instruments,

1. scale with on-screen display

2. Combined analog / display scale of a universal instrument

3. Frequency meter scale with moving mechanism and mirror below the instrument hand for more accurate frequency reading

Analogni ugradni varmetr sa kvadrantnom levi i kružnom skalom desno

Analog built-in VAR meter with quadrant left and circular scale right

Velika sektorska skala jednog starije voltmetra koji se najčešće koristio koristi u školskim laboratorijama

The large sector scale of one older voltmeter most commonly used is used in school laboratories

Izgled nelinearne skale jednog ommetra za merenja otpora u omima i meaomima.

Appearance of a nonlinear scale of one ohmmeter for resistance measurements in ohms and meaoms.

Original author’s work.

About the Author

- Radoje - Rade Jankovic Electrician, Electrical Technician, Electrical Engineer, PhD, Ecologist, Environmentalist, Designer, Educator, Investigator... Today PROFESSIONAL TECHNICAL WRITER AND DOCUMENTATOR Massive practical experience in almost all fields of electrical engineering over 40 years. My International education group in Facebook: EEEW - ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC EDUCATION WORLD where published more than 8000 small or bigger articles, lessons, technical advice, projects, technical calculations, test questions with and without answers, illustrated test questions with and without answers; all my original works and few thousands of may original photos from practice, drawings, circuit diagrams, environmental lessons and examples from everyday practice etc., etc.

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SCALES FOR ANALOGUE ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS